Tag Archives: Study

International landmine casualties boost, Afghanistan largely to blame: study

LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Lengthy-term progress in decreasing the number of landmine casualties was reversed last year, and rebel groups employed the mines in ten countries, the biggest quantity considering that 2006, researchers stated on Thursday.

Non-state groups were nonetheless utilizing the deadly devices in the 12 months to October 2015 in Colombia, Libya, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria and Yemen, and in Afghanistan, exactly where there was a sharp enhance in casualties from improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

Landmines had been also utilized by rebels in three nations – Iraq, Tunisia and Ukraine – where they have been not used last year, and by 3 states: Myanmar, Syria and North Korea.

“Whilst the planet has created excellent progress, the previous year has seen disturbing actions backward in terms of new use of and casualties from landmines,” mentioned Jeff Abramson, editor of the study, which was carried out by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a lobby group.

A total of three,678 people have been killed or wounded by landmines more than the final year, about ten per day. This is up from three,308 in 2013 but far reduced than in 1999, the year a key treaty came into force, when there have been around 25 casualties each day.

The correct figure is most likely to be larger than the a single recorded, but the drop is nonetheless hugely considerable simply because recording has improved over time, Thursday’s report mentioned.

The vast majority – about 80 percent – of reported casualties were civilians.

“The new use of antipersonnel mines by non-state armed groups in … Ukraine and Yemen, and the continuing big-scale use of victim-activated IEDs in Afghanistan and Iraq, are particularly worrisome,” said Mark Hiznay, senior researcher at Human Rights Watch.

New landmines have been laid in only a small minority of countries, but current ones are still present in 57 nations. Mozambique declared itself mine-cost-free in September, the 28th nation to do so given that 1999.

At least 200 square kilometers of mined areas worldwide were reported cleared last year, most of them in Afghanistan, Cambodia and Croatia, a slight boost from 2013.

The 1999 Ottawa Convention prohibits the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines. While backed by most countries, the treaty has not been endorsed by the United States, Russia, China and India.

(Reporting By Joseph D’Urso, editing by Tim Pearce. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women’s rights, trafficking, corruption and climate adjust. Visit www.trust.org)

Bandar Sabung Ayam

Agen Sabung Ayam – Deforestation Could Threaten Majority of Amazon Tree Species, Study Finds

Agen Sabung Ayam

Deforestation threatens more than half of all tree species in the Amazon, a new study suggests.

Researchers, whose work was published Friday in the journal Science Advances, studied the status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species, including the Brazil nut and the plants that produce cacao and açaí palm.

By comparing maps of projected deforestation with data collected in the forest, the researchers found that at least 36 percent and up to 57 percent of the Amazon’s tree species should qualify as threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List, the most widely recognized authority on threats to species conservation.

Their findings suggest that the number of globally threatened plant species could increase by about 22 percent, and globally threatened tree species by 36 percent.

“We’ve never had a good idea of how many Amazonian species were vulnerable,” said Nigel Pitman, a tropical ecologist at the Field Museum in Chicago. “And now, with this study, we’ve got an estimate.”

Dr. Pitman is one of more than 150 researchers from nearly 100 institutions listed as authors of the paper. Almost every scientist trekked into the Amazon to measure tree diameters and collect leaves, branches, flowers and fruits. The scientists recorded information from 1,485 plots of forest, each about two acres.

The conservation union has several criteria for conferring Red List status, and it considers both historical and projected population loss. To date, it has assessed more than 76,000 species, including all birds, amphibians and mammals, and has labeled more than 22,000 animals, fungi and plants as being at risk for extinction.

After collecting the data, the team constructed a computer model to analyze it under two scenarios. The first scenario, called the “business as usual” model, estimated that by 2050, about 40 percent of the original Amazon forests would disappear. The second scenario, in which governments enacted stronger preservation regulations, estimated that 21 percent of the forest would be destroyed by 2050.

Under the “business as usual” model, 8,690 of today’s tree species should be classified as threatened, and under the second model, 5,515 should be, the team reported.

“Fortunately, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon, which represents about 60 percent of the total Amazon area, have decreased by about 75 percent since 2005,” Timothy J. Killeen, a botanist at Agteca-Amazonica in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, said during a news conference with reporters.

Dr. Killeen said current estimates showed that the Amazon was doing better than the researchers’ best-case scenario had predicted, for which the team credits recent efforts to expand parks and protected areas. The researchers added that their estimates of threatened species were valid, despite the current condition of the Amazon, because government policies can change quickly and put those species at risk.

“If we can keep these reserves from suffering degradation, then we can actually protect a substantial part of the diversity in the Amazon,” said Hans ter Steege, a tropical ecologist at Naturalis Biodiversity Center in the Netherlands and lead author of the paper.

Stephen P. Hubbell, a tropical forest ecologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who was not involved in the study, said that he was impressed by the data the researchers had collected, but that it was difficult to extrapolate the findings to the entirety of the Amazon.

“It’s a first-class study, but the data are still hard to test,” he said. “Even with all the samples that they had across the Amazon, it’s still a truly tiny fraction of the total area.”

Kenneth J. Feeley, a tropical ecologist at Florida International University, said the study underscored the importance for the Amazon of establishing protected areas, and of making sure those protections are enforced.

“This is a major problem in conservation. It’s very easy for governments to draw a line on the map and declare an area protected,” he said. “It’s much harder to make that area effectively protected.”

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