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How the world learned its lesson and got a climate deal

PARIS It was an agreement born from a fear of failure, delivered by the smoothness of French diplomacy.

Six years earlier, countries had bitterly walked away from international climate talks in Copenhagen with out a deal. The selection to reassemble in Paris to attempt once again at getting virtually 200 countries to sign a pact on cutting carbon emissions was a gamble: one more collapse could the end world’s ability to forge a frequent strategy to dealing with climate adjust.

And no political leader wanted his reputation stained by a repeat of the debacle in Copenhagen.

So there was no detail of hospitality also tiny for the French hosts this time, no country negotiator who would go unflattered by Laurent Fabius, the French foreign minister who presided over the conference.

Fabius had been the youngest French prime minister in history in the 1980s now he was an elder statesman hunting to carve a bigger place in it. More than two weeks under the international spotlight, his sonorous voice and relentless optimism would come to define the public tone of the proceedings.

But behind the scenes, the talks witnessed the confrontations and five-previous-midnight compromises to be anticipated when sleep-deprived negotiators from almost each nation in the globe are supposed to come to a consensus.

They eventually found it, remarkably only a single day later than planned. But the path to the standing ovations at the end was strewn with disputes more than income, the emergence of an successful new climate coalition of states, and hours of wrangling more than what “should” or “shall” be completed.

FRENCH Techniques

For the survivors of Copenhagen, the crucial to accomplishment in Paris would be preparation.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon complained that the political leaders had not been well-ready for the Copenhagen meeting, and this time he and the French carried out comprehensive advance perform to get other leaders personally engaged.

They also decided that, if leaders had been to come to Paris, they would do so at the starting to lend the talks some political oxygen, rather than arriving for a scramble at the end.

So on Nov. 30, the sprawling conference hall near the Le Bourget airfield on the outskirts of Paris hosted planet leaders, who have been supposed to provide 3 minutes of encouragement. Fabius wandered the conference center just before they arrived, tapping microphones and checking the video monitors below a podium made of recycled wood.

“Ah, we have Prince Charles,” he said to an aide, consulting the speakers’ list.

The opening day speeches were observed as a accomplishment. UN officials were relieved at the fairly cooperative tone from Russian President Vladimir Putin who was among numerous leaders who assured Ban privately just before the outset that Russia would not block a deal, UN officials stated later.

Fabius pulled collectively a group of officials and diplomats from across the French civil service to facilitate the talks. “He treated it much less like a climate negotiation and far more like a trade deal,” stated one particular UN veteran of past climate talks.

He also consistently praised delegates for their challenging operate and insights, just before telling them exactly what schedule of debate they had to follow to finish by their self-imposed deadline of Friday, Dec. 11.

He gave the job of writing the accord’s preamble to Venezuela’s minister Claudia Salerno, whose nation had been possibly the harshest critic of the Copenhagen method that was noticed as a collusion of big powers dictating to small countries, producing her personally vested in obtaining compromises.

Not all building nations had been effortlessly won more than, nonetheless. A central sticking point throughout the talks was the degree to which the agreement would be legally binding on countries, especially the rich ones who are expected to provide the hundreds of billions of dollars in funding to cover the transition to a low carbon future.

The variations have been expressed in wrangles more than wording. Difficult, legally binding commitments were proceeded in the text as items that nations “shall” do.

Those products that were simply very good intentions fell into the “should” do category.

HALF A DEGREE CLOSER

Facing unbudging demands to place their economic commitments into legal language, U.S. negotiators knew they had to break the poor vs. rich country divide. Their tactic was to sign up to a loose coalition of nations known as the Higher Ambition Coalition.

The European Union requires credit for beginning the group as far back as 2011, when it was a loose alliance among the EU and tiny island states.

As Paris approached, it expanded to consist of African, Caribbean and Pacific nations, establishing an agenda that integrated the aim of keeping the global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 Fahrenheit) over pre-industrial levels by the end of the 21st century.

The quantity had nearly been banished from significant discussion ahead of Paris. But the American decision to “join” the High Ambition Coalition brought the 1.five aim back into play, sweetened with pledges of hundreds of millions of dollars to help island and developing states mitigate the ill-effects of climate adjust.

Though the promise is only aspirational, the re-emergence of references to 1.5 degrees in the Paris text brought several influential creating countries into the U.S. camp. Soon Canada joined, then Australia and Brazil, a collection of wealthy, heavy-polluting western nations marching into the plenary hall alongside the Marshall Islands.

China’s negotiators dismissed the Higher Ambition Coalition as a stunt. “This is a sort of performance by some members,” said Liu Zhenmin, deputy head of the China delegation. But the solidarity of the establishing nation bloc was broken.

Final BRIDGES AND HICCUPS

Climate change summits have developed a particular theater of their personal. In 1 moment, it was possible to see actor Alec Baldwin expressing his fears for the planet to journalists, across from an Indonesian pavilion hosting a celebration to show off its pilot green power hospitals.

But much of the real function was accomplished by individuals not even at Le Bourget. After visiting at the commence, U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping discussed roadblocks by telephone, and the two nations appeared to be largely on the identical web page.

Other housekeeping of the text was taken care of. Negotiators insured that a distinct reference to climate effects on “occupied territories” was taken out to hold the politics focused on climate troubles.

By Saturday, Fabius the pieces had been falling into location. “I consider we’re done right here,” mentioned a happy Marshall Islands foreign minister Tony de Brum on Saturday morning.

There was to be a single last hiccup. The final text had settled on 143 products prefaced by “shall,” 40 with “should.” But in a single section, the words appeared to have been flipped.

Suddenly, there was a delay in the hall where delegates had convened amid smiles and air kisses to seal the deal.

Fabius and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry left the space, replaced by rumors of difficulty. But then the French minister was back. A technical glitch, he explained, brought on by the fatigue of a drafter.

The organizers announced corrections to a couple of typographical errors, and tellingly switched 1 final “should” for a “shall” ahead of Fabius swiftly brought the gavel down.

(Writing by Richard Valdmanis and Bruce Wallace Added reporting by Alister Doyle, Valerie Volcovici, Barbara Lewis, David Stanway and Nina Chestney in Paris editing by Anna Willard)

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UPDATE 1-Fosun executives to meet Delek in Israel more than Phoenix deal

(Releads with Delek statement on Fosun meetings)

TEL AVIV Dec 13 Representatives of Fosun International will arrive in Israel in the coming days to discuss the procedure of its agreed deal to buy handle of Israeli insurer Phoenix Holdings from Delek Group .

Delek mentioned in a statement to the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange on Sunday that it would issue additional statements on any developments associated to the sales process.

The stock exchange on Sunday suspended trading in Delek and Phoenix due to events connected to Fosun, which mentioned on Friday its Chairman Guo Guangchang, a single of China’s very best-recognized entrepreneurs, was assisting authorities with an investigation, soon after an earlier report mentioned the group lost make contact with with its billionaire founder.

Following Delek issued its statement, the stock exchange mentioned trading in the shares would resume at 0939 GMT.

Delek, one of Israel’s major conglomerates, in June agreed to sell its 52.31 % stake in Phoenix to Fosun for 1.eight billion shekels ($ 467 million). ($ 1 = three.8545 shekels) (Reporting by Tova Cohen. Editing by Jane Merriman)

Global climate conference adopts historic deal

PARIS Dec 12 Nicaragua on Saturday raised objections to the new climate deal, saying it did not do sufficient to shield “Mother Earth”, in a symbolic protest soon after the deal had been formally adopted.

Paul Oquist, head of the Nicaraguan delegation, stated wealthy nations should do far far more to reduce emissions to aid defend “Mother Earth” and that governments had been sending their grandchildren to a hotter globe.

“We want to clarify now why we can’t accompany this consensus,” he said.

Oquist spoke following French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius had banged down the gavel on a new worldwide deal to curb climate change.

Nicaragua all through the talks has stated developed nations are not carrying out adequate to reduce their use of carbon and are not providing enough funding to assist the created world adapt to the influence of climate alter. (Reporting by Barbara Lewis and Valerie Volcovici editing by Andrew Roche)

Venezuelan negotiator thanks Hugo Chavez for Paris climate deal

PARIS Venezuela’s chief climate negotiator aims to pay a visit to the tomb of late socialist President Hugo Chavez to honor him as the unacknowledged architect of the Paris agreement on Saturday to slow global warming.

“He was proper. We’re here simply because of him,” Claudia Salerno, amongst the most combative and extended-serving negotiators at U.N. talks, told Reuters, saying Chavez’s opposition that helped block a 2009 summit on international warming in Copenhagen was a spur for nations to return to negotiate a greater accord this year.

Chavez, who died of cancer in 2013, was amongst a handful of leaders, largely left-wingers from Latin America, who stated the climate deal in Copenhagen did not demand enough greenhouse gas cuts by rich nations.

“I will most most likely check out his tomb,” she stated, and take along the text of the Paris accord, which obliges developed nations to do far more to support poorer nations adapt to far more heatwaves, droughts, floods and rising seas.

Salerno reduce her hand banging the table in a fraught final evening of negotiations in Copenhagen. “Do you think a sovereign country has to actually reduce its hand and draw blood?” she asked the Danish hosts, accusing them of ignoring her.

Salerno’s Twitter profile has a photograph of Chavez in the background and she regularly wears a Chavez pin on her blazer.

French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius gave Salerno, Venezuela’s ambassador to the European Union, responsibility for writing the preamble of the Paris accord. It consists of mentions of gender equality, human rights, rights of indigenous peoples and the want to shield Mother Earth.

Delegates mentioned that was part of a technique to head off possible objections from Venezuela after Copenhagen’s failure.

Salerno unnerved a lot of in Bonn in October by getting the most crucial at preparatory talks for Paris, saying: “I have seen this film … I hope this is not going to be a actually, genuinely nasty negative second Copenhagen”.

In Venezuela final week, the opposition won handle of the legislature for the very first time in 16 years of Socialist rule in an election in the OPEC nation.

On the world stage, Chavez most famously complained in 2006 at the United Nations of the “smell of sulphur” at a podium exactly where the “devil” George W. Bush had stood the day before.

Earlier this week, Salerno was already bullish on a final outcome. “For the first time we have this sense that lastly, our paranoia has disappeared,” she said.

Salerno mentioned she has had to raise her voice in the past to make confident other countries are heard in the talks.

She says her daughter, now seven, has been calling Salerno each day. “My children are asking me every single day if we reached a deal. That’s even a lot more stress than from my own government,” she stated.

(Reporting By Alister Doyle)

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CLIMATE Short-Nicaragua tends to make symbolic protest over new climate deal

PARIS Dec 12 Nicaragua on Saturday raised objections to the new climate deal, saying it did not do sufficient to safeguard “Mother Earth”, in a symbolic protest right after the deal had been formally adopted.

Paul Oquist, head of the Nicaraguan delegation, mentioned wealthy nations must do far much more to minimize emissions to aid defend “Mother Earth” and that governments had been sending their grandchildren to a hotter world.

“We want to explain now why we can’t accompany this consensus,” he said.

Oquist spoke following French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius had banged down the gavel on a new international deal to curb climate modify.

Nicaragua throughout the talks has mentioned created nations are not doing enough to decrease their use of carbon and are not providing adequate funding to aid the developed globe adapt to the influence of climate alter. (Reporting by Barbara Lewis and Valerie Volcovici editing by Andrew Roche)

In final push for landmark climate deal, end of fossil fuel era nears

PARIS At the tail end of the hottest year on record, climate negotiators in Paris will aim on Saturday to seal a landmark accord that will transform the world’s fossil fuel-driven economy within decades and turn the tide on worldwide warming.

Soon after 4 years of fraught U.N. talks typically pitting the interests of rich nations against poor, imperiled island states against rising economic powerhouses, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius will unveil the most current text of a climate deal on Saturday at 9 a.m. (0300 ET).

He hopes to secure a sweeping agreement to curb increasing greenhouse gas emissions within hours. If that fails, the talks could run into Sunday.

Officials from 195 nations have been locked in negotiations by way of the evening, looking for to resolve the final sticking points, none seemingly insurmountable: the phrasing of a goal for phasing out carbon emissions later this century the frequency of additional negotiations meant to encourage even quicker action.

“All the situations are in location to have a universal, ambitious final deal,” Fabius told reporters late on Friday, urging a drive to resolve what are nevertheless deep disagreements on problems such as finance for building nations.

“There has never ever been such a sturdy momentum.”

The outcome, like pledges to expand billions of dollars in funding to ease the shift to low-carbon fuels and to help creating nations cope with impacts of climate change ranging from floods to heat waves, is likely to be hailed by many for its ambition, whilst vilified by others for its lack thereof.

If profitable, it will be a effective symbol to planet citizens and a signal to investors — for the first time in much more than two decades, the world will have a frequent vision for cutting back on the greenhouse gas emissions blamed for overheating the planet, and a roadmap for ending two centuries of fossil fuel dominance.

By charting a frequent course, they hope executives and investors will be more willing to invest trillions of dollars to replace coal-fired power with solar panels and windmills.

“It will be up to enterprise, buyers, citizens and especially investors to finish the job,” said Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Director of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Effect Investigation.

However unlike the Kyoto Protocol, the last major climate deal agreed in 1997, the Paris pact will not be a legally binding treaty, one thing that would almost definitely fail to pass the U.S. Congress. Instead, it will be largely up to each nation to pursue greener growth in its personal way, producing good on detailed pledges submitted ahead of the two-week summit.

And in the United States, many Republicans will see the pact as a hazardous endeavor that threatens to trade financial prosperity for an uncertain if greener future.

A deal in Paris would mark a legacy-defining achievement for U.S. President Barack Obama, who has warned not to “condemn our kids to a planet beyond their capacity to repair”, and puts to rest the previous climate summit in Copenhagen six years ago, when attempts to agree even deeper carbon curbs failed.

A LATE BREAK

Leaders of vulnerable low-lying nations — who brought collectively much more than one hundred nations in a “high ambition coalition” at the talks, striving for the strongest attainable language — have portrayed the Paris talks as the last chance to stay away from the catastrophic consequences of rising temperatures.

Without joining with each other for quick action, they had warned, greenhouse gas emissions would be specific to push the planet’s ecosystem beyond what scientists view as a tipping point: two degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial temperatures. It is already 1 degree C greater.

The current draft seeks to restrain the rise to “well beneath 2C”, a more ambitious purpose than past efforts stopping at 2C, but one particular that faced opposition from some oil-exporting nations.

While scientists say national pledges as a result far are still also little to avert that taking place, the agreement need to set out a roadmap for steadily escalating or ‘ratcheting up’ those measures in order to head off calamity. How typically to do so was 1 of the few remaining points of dissention.

President Xi Jinping has promised that carbon dioxide emissions from China’s rapidly building economy will commence falling from around 2030, and does not want to revisit the target. Delegates mentioned China had also reasserted demands that developed nations do far more to curb greenhouse gas emissions, mostly the result of burning coal, gas and oil.

A final deal is anticipated to provide establishing nations higher economic security as they wean themselves away from coal-fired power, and also endure the economic consequences of a warming climate on the earth’s flora and fauna.

Rich nations are probably to increase and extend an earlier pledge to offer $ one hundred billion a year in funding by 2020, a single of the principal sticking points.

The strength of that commitment was nonetheless being crafted late on Friday, with some of the negotiators displaying the effects of a two-week-long diplomatic marathon.

“There will be a new draft text tomorrow and hopefully a final agreement. I hope so due to the fact I want to go back house,” mentioned Izabella Teixeira, Brazil’s minister of atmosphere. “I love France but I miss Brazil too considerably.”

(Reporting By Emmanuel Jarry, Bate Felix, Lesley Wroughton, Nina Chestney and David Stanway Editing by Janet Lawrence)

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Russia’s Rosneft gets deal to supply Trafigura with diesel in 2016 – traders

MOSCOW Dec 11 Russia’s leading oil producer Rosneft and Swiss trader Trafigura have signed a deal, which involved forward financing, on diesel provide in 2016 from the Baltic Sea port of Primorsk and Pacific outlet of Nakhodka, traders said on Friday.

Rosneft will sell up to three million tonnes of ultra-low sulphur diesel from Primorsk and up to two.9 million tonnes of 500 ppm sulphur diesel from Nakhodka. Trafigura will also secure up to 1 million tonnes of bunker fuel from Nakhodka.

Each firms declined to comment.

Rosneft has enjoyed offers with traders under which they prepay for future fuel supplies.

The organization stated in its monetary report that it received pre-payments worth far more than 1 trillion roubles ($ 15.three billion) below its long-term supply contracts with customers in the third quarter, supplying money that has helped the heavily-indebted group repay a substantial element of its quick-term debt. (Reporting by Gleb Gorodyankin, Olga Yagova and Natalya Chumakova writing by Vladimir Soldatkin editing by Jack Stubbs)

Gulf states get in touch with for Yemen reconstruction meeting right after peace deal

RIYADH Gulf Arab states called on Thursday for an international reconstruction conference for Yemen following any peace deal to finish the country’s civil war.

The get in touch with came in a statement by Gulf Cooperation Council leaders at the conclusion of their summit meeting in the Saudi capital Riyadh, which was study out by GCC Secretary-Common Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani.

Yemeni warring parties are due to gather in Switzerland next week for U.N.-sponsored peace talks to finish a civil war that had killed nearly 6,000 people.

(Reporting by Sami Aboudi Editing by Dominic Evans)

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EU dangles February deal for Cameron, but not on migrants

BRUSSELS The man running negotiations with Britain to keep it in the European Union said leaders could seal a deal in February but warned David Cameron that a central demand to curb immigration may be asking too much.

Donald Tusk, who next week chairs the first detailed talks on the issue between the British prime minister and all his 27 peers, sent EU leaders a progress report a month after Cameron laid out four sets of reforms he wants if he is to campaign for continued EU membership in a referendum due within two years.

“We have made good progress,” the European Council president said in a letter that contained few surprises. ” We … have to overcome the substantial political differences that we still have on the issue of social benefits and free movement.”

After next week’s summit, he added: “We should be able to prepare a concrete proposal to be finally adopted in February.”

Many governments are willing to make changes to keep Britain in the Union. Tusk said the main stumbling block was Cameron’s pledge to cut immigration to Britain by denying benefits to workers from other EU states for four years after they arrive.

Anti-EU campaigners said Tusk’s letter showed Cameron would secure little of consequence from Brussels. But the prime minister’s office said he would stick with a proposal that many leaders, especially in the EU’s poorer east, say would mean illegal discrimination and denying a fundamental freedom to EU citizens.

“There is a strong will on the part of all sides to find solutions,” wrote Tusk, while describing as “difficult” the demands Cameron set out in a letter on Nov. 10.

In particular, Tusk said changes to social benefit rules are “the most delicate” of Cameron’s four reform “baskets”. The former Polish premier noted support for fighting welfare abuses and a possibility of reducing what Britain pays in child benefit to workers whose children live in poorer countries.

But one welfare request was very tricky: “There is presently no consensus on the request that people coming to Britain from the EU must live there and contribute for four years before they qualify for in-work benefits or social housing,” Tusk said.

Cameron’s spokeswoman said the demand would stay on the table for the Brussels summit on Dec. 17-18. “This issue that we are trying to address here is how better to control migration from within the EU,” she said. “We will continue to have discussions and explore the options.”

Just how flexible Cameron may be is unclear. Tusk suggested some welfare reforms were possible. Cameron’s spokeswoman said: “We need reform in all four areas that we have outlined.”

British finance minister George Osborne, speaking in New York late on Monday, said further negotiations would be “complex and robust”, but that the most recent developments showed more progress than many people had expected.

SKEPTICS

The UK Independence Party, which says Britain will be better off outside a bloc struggling with mass immigration and economic blight, said: “President Tusk has called Cameron’s bluff.”

Deputy leader Paul Nuttall, arguing the letter showed there would be no big move on benefits for EU migrants, said: “Cameron must now follow through on his threat to campaign to leave.”

The prime minister has said he would rather stay in the EU but rules nothing out — a line repeated by his office after a weekend newspaper report that he might campaign to quit if his demands were “completely ignored” by EU leaders.

The Vote Leave campaign renewed accusations that Cameron has staged the renegotiation in bad faith, going through the motions to outflank UKIP and the Eurosceptic wing of his own party while avoiding a rift that pro-EU campaigners say could hurt British access to markets and weaken its voice in Europe and the world.

“In an effort to secure a deal at any cost, David Cameron is only asking for trivial things,” Vote Leave chief executive Matthew Elliott said. “That’s why he is now having a manufactured row with the EU to try and make his renegotiation sound more significant than it really is.”

An EU deal in February could allow a referendum in early summer, just over a year after Cameron won a new five-year term. He has insisted he will not rush into a deal but some business leaders have called for a swift vote to end the uncertainty.

Tusk in his letter to EU leaders urged them to seek a quick solution, warning that uncertainty over whether Britain would end its 42-year membership was “destabilizing” the bloc.

Losing the EU’s second biggest economy and one of its two main military powers would diminish the EU when it faces threats from Russia and Islamist militants and problems with mass immigration and a struggling economy.

“We need to be united and strong,” Tusk wrote. “The UK has played a constructive and important role in the development of the European Union and I am sure that it will continue to do so.”

He outlined compromises on three other areas of British concern. A “set of principles” to avoid discrimination against countries not using the EU’s euro currency might be found and possibly a “mechanism” to support those principles without giving non-euro states “a veto right” over euro matters.

He said there was a very strong determination in the EU to promote the competitiveness, light regulation of business and free trade agreements that Cameron has called for.

And on British concerns about national sovereignty, Tusk said there was a “largely shared view” on ensuring national parliaments had an important role in the EU. There was also “wide agreement”, he said, that the concept of “ever closer union among the people”, enshrined in treaty and unpopular in Britain, still allowed states to integrate on “various paths”.

(Additional reporting by David Milliken; Editing by Mark Heinrich and Toby Chopra)

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Russia expects Iran nuclear deal to be implemented in January

VIENNA Russia’s envoy to the U.N. nuclear watchdog stated on Monday he anticipated a historic nuclear deal amongst Iran and planet powers to be implemented in January, top to sanctions against Tehran getting lifted.

At talks in Vienna, senior officials from those key powers discussed with Iran a text they have prepared that would close the International Atomic Power Agency’s 12-year investigation of Tehran’s previous activities whilst guaranteeing the IAEA could still verify for signs of suspicious behavior.

Beneath the deal, Iran must scale back its nuclear system, like its stockpile of low-enriched uranium – which it plans to do by means of a swap for non-enriched forms of uranium with Russia, to remove issues it could be put to developing nuclear bombs.

That swap will be done prior to the finish of the year, the Russian envoy to the IAEA, Vladimir Voronkov, told reporters.

Iran has stated it will fulfill all its commitments under the July agreement only if the IAEA’s Board of Governors passes a resolution formally closing its investigation into Iran’s nuclear past when the board meets on Dec. 15.

The draft resolution of the IAEA Board of Governors drawn up by the key powers — France, Britain, Germany, the United States, Russia and China — and sent to other states on Monday contained provisions that both sides could claim as victories.

“(The board) also notes that all the activities in the road-map for the clarification of past and present outstanding troubles regarding Iran’s nuclear plan were implemented in accordance with the agreed schedule and further notes that this closes the Board’s consideration of this item,” the text said.

The draft resolution, obtained by Reuters, also said the board would sooner or later no longer be seized of “Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Safety Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran”, referring to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

That phrase, and a shorter version prior to the relevant U.N. Safety Council resolutions have been passed, has been the title of the IAEA’s standard reports on its investigation of Iran’s nuclear activities because 2003.

Anything FOR Absolutely everyone

The draft resolution did, nevertheless, also give for the board to tackle a new item covering “implementation and verification and monitoring” of the July deal in Iran, and for the IAEA to offer quarterly reports on Iran’s implementation of its commitments below the accord.

More generally, it requests the head of the agency to “report, in this regard … to the Board of Governors for proper action, and in parallel to the United Nations Security Council, at any time if the Director General has affordable grounds to believe there is an issue of concern.”

Earlier on Monday, Iran’s top nuclear negotiator, Abbas Araqchi, who met with senior officials from significant powers in Vienna, told Reuters soon after the meetings he was happy with the draft resolution and anticipated it to be adopted subsequent week.

For sanctions on Iran to be lifted, the IAEA have to initial verify that the Islamic Republic has honored all its commitments below the July deal, like dismantling large numbers of its centrifuges for uranium enrichment and filling parts of its Arak nuclear site with cement.

The IAEA report on Iran’s nuclear previous, which was issued last week, strongly recommended Tehran had a secret nuclear weapons system before 2003, but, in a sign of the shift in relations since July, Western powers voiced small concern.

Araqchi mentioned Iran rejected the findings of the report about its plan ahead of 2003, but added that, in Iran’s view, overall the document showed the peaceful nature of Iran’s atomic activities.

“We think that primarily based on this final assessment the Board of Governors should close the so-called PMD issue,” he told reporters, referring to the report into what is also known as the “attainable military dimensions” of Iran’s nuclear past.

(Additional reporting by Louis Charbonneau in New York Editing by Mark Heinrich)

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